• Data Science

    Diving In To Big Data

    Big Data refers to data that is voluminous in size and is continually growing with time. It is essentially huge chunks of complex information that standard data management tools can’t store or process. 

    Are you still confused? Let’s break down Big Data to its basics to understand what it’s all about. 

    What is data?

    Data is the characters, quantities, or symbols used by computers for numerous operations. They are recorded on optical, mechanical, or magnetic recording media and stored and transmitted as electrical signals.

    Big Data

    Big data, as we’ve established, is voluminous in size. That is perhaps its one defining feature. Hence, the tag ‘Big.’ However, there are also several other characteristics or attributes of Big Data besides its sheer volume. They are:

    Diversity of Data

    Big Data is composed of diverse types of data from different sources and in various formats. It’s no longer just databases and spreadsheets but pictures, videos, emails, audio files, PDFs, and so on. And this is what makes Big Data quite challenging to sort out and mine. 

    Variability of Data

    The other defining feature of Big Data is its variability. Owing to the volume and diversity of data, Big Data can have certain data inconsistencies which can be very hard to handle. It can often lead to the damaging of data during extraction or sorting. 

    Velocity of Data

    The velocity of data means the speed or pace at which the data is generated and processed. In Big Data, the rate of flow of data is almost unceasing, owing to its massive size. There is a constant movement of data from source to storage.

    Varied Structures of Data

    You can find Big Data in three basic structures. That is, structured, unstructured, and semi-structured.

    • Structured Big Data- Structured Big Data is where the data type is predominantly one that can be accessed, stored, and processed with a fixed format. This kind of Big Data is comparatively easier to handle than the unstructured and semi-structured. An example would be an employee table database.
    • Unstructured Big Data- Unstructured Big Data has no single fixed format through which it can be accessed, stored, or processed. It is heterogeneous with a mix of different types of formats like images, audio files, videos, PDFs, etc. A good example is a Google search output.

    Unstructured Big Data has the potential to be of great value. A lot of leading organizations and companies have access to unstructured Big Data but do not possess the adequate tools to benefit from them.

    • Semi-Structured Big Data: Semi-Structured Big data, on the other hand, is a mixture of the two. You will find large chunks of structured data as well as unstructured data. This form is also challenging to access, store, and process. An excellent example of this type of Big Data would be an XML file. 

    The Potential of Big Data Processing

    As challenging as it is to work with Big Data, processing it can reap numerous benefits for those who can access it.

    Processing Big Data allows all stakeholders involved to access data that might help them improve products and services with ease. And instead of the traditional way of attaining data through customer feedback or surveys, stakeholders can analyze Big Data and streamline their performance effectively. 

    Processing Big Data can potentially improve customer service, sharpen marketing skills, contribute crucial data to the resource pool, etc. 

    Companies, organizations, and businesses can make better decisions on high-stake issues knowing that factual data can back their decisions. Big Data processing, in a nutshell, is potentially the next big step in more proficient socio-economic processes. 

  • Machine Learning

    What Is Machine Learning?

    Machine Learning consists of a branch of computer science and AI or Artificial Intelligence. It stresses the usage of algorithms and data for imitating the learning ways of humans. It helps enhance accuracy. Its algorithms utilize statistics for locating patterns in huge data amounts. Here, the data refers to numbers, clicks, words, and images. If you digitally store it, then you can feed it into an algorithm of machine learning.

    Machine Learning is responsible for powering multiple services that we utilize today. For instance, it can be recommendation systems that you find on Spotify, Netflix, and YouTube. It can also be search engines such as Baidu and Google, or social media feeds such as Twitter and Facebook. You can also add voice assistants like Alexa and Siri to the list.

    Why Is It Important?

    Its significance lies in the expanding data science field. Algorithms make usage of statistical techniques for making predictions and classifications. It does an excellent job of uncovering all the key insights inside the projects of data mining. Through these insights, there is subsequent drive and determination in decision-making inside businesses and applications. It impacts the growth of key metrics.

    Basic Concepts

    You will come across multiple types of algorithms in machine learning. There are more than 100 publishing in a day. And their grouping differs according to the learning style or similarity in function or form. But regardless of the learning function or style, the mixtures of algorithms in machine learning consists of:

    • Representation – It refers to the set of language or classifiers, which a desktop understands.
    • Evaluation – It is referring to the objective or scoring function.
    • Optimization – This search method is usually the classifier with the highest scores.

    How It Works

    • In general, we are all aware that algorithms of machine learning help in making classification or predictions. Your algorithm will create an estimation regarding your pattern within the data. It does so based on certain input data that are unlabelled or labeled.
    • An error function assists in serving to evaluate the model’s prediction. An error function tends to make comparisons for observing and assessing the model’s accuracy. You will know this from the known examples with Machine Learning.
    • If a model fits better to all the data points within the training set, then there is the adjustment of the weights for reducing the discrepancy present between the model estimation and known example. This algorithm will proceed in repeating the evaluation and optimization procedure. It also updates weights independently until it meets the right accuracy.

    The Methods In Machine Learning

    The classifiers of machine learning tend to fall into three main categories:

    Supervised Machine Learning – Supervised Machine Learning or Supervised Learning uses labeled datasets for training algorithms that classify data or accurately predict outcomes. Once the input data begins to feed inside the model, it starts adjusting its weights unless and until the model is appropriately fit. This occurrence takes place with the cross-validation procedure for ensuring that the model doesn’t underfit or overfit.

    It assists many organizations in solving numerous large-scale problems. Supervised Learning use methods like neural networks, logistic regression, support vector machine or SVM, linear regression, random forest, naïve Bayes, and the list goes on.

    Unsupervised Machine Learning – Unsupervised Machine Learning or Unsupervised Learning uses algorithms for analyzing and clustering the unlabelled datasets. The algorithm helps in locating data groupings or hidden patterns without human intervention. This learning helps find many differences and similarities in information. It is the perfect solution for customer segmentation, exploratory data analysis, pattern and image recognition, and cross-selling strategies.

    Unsupervised learning also assists in decreasing the features present in a model. It does so via the procedure of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), dimensionality reduction, and SVD or Singular Value Decomposition. Some other algorithms present in Unsupervised Learning consist of neural networks, probabilistic clustering techniques, and clustering.

    Semi-Supervised Learning – Under Semi-Supervised Learning, you will receive a happy medium right between Unsupervised and Supervised Learning. At training, it utilizes a small labeled dataset for guiding the classification. It also features extraction from a bigger unlabelled dataset. This learning corrects the issue of lacking labeled data for training an algorithm with supervised learning.

    The Bottomline!

    Machine learning algorithms are the cause for the vast number of applications, and artificial intelligence advancements present today. These algorithms are using statistics for finding patterns in large data amounts nowadays. It is undoubtedly taking human beings to the technological forefront today. Machine learning forms an integral part when it comes to the ever-growing base of data science.

  • Data Science

    Programming Languages Best Suited For Data Science

    The insights extracted from Big Data, by Data Science, are to a large extent dependant on the Programming Languages used. Some of the best programming languages to learn for data science are now reviewed to guide our readers.

    Some of the best programming languages to learn for data science are as follows:

    • R: Along with Python, this is the major language for Data Science now. Scheme or S was created by John Chambers in 1976, at Bell Labs. R is an open source implementation of S, by Language Designers Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka. S has been combined with lexical scoping semantics to create R. It is an interpreted language, for procedural programming. It provides software for statistical computing and graphics, supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Business support is provided by Microsoft, RStudio and so on.
    • Python: This language has been dubbed the easiest language to learn and read. It can interface with high-performance algorithms written in Fortran or C, so it is the leading programming language for open Data Science. It was created by Dutchman Programmer Guido van Rossum in the ‘80’s at CWI (Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica) as a successor to his own team’s ABC language (which followed SETL). It was conceived in order to interface with the Amoeba Operating System. It was released in December 1989. The software includes CPython, Psyco, Nuitka, SageMath, Ubuntu, Gentoo Linux, Sugar and XO.
    • SQL: Originally known as SEQUEL, and now standing for “Structured Query Language”, this language was developed during the ‘70’s by Researchers Donald Chamberlain and Richard Boyce of IBM. It was spurred by the published paper by Edgar Frank Todd in 1970, entitled “A Relational Model of Data For large Shared Data Banks”. It is popularly used for querying and editing the information stored in a relational database. Particularly large Databases can be managed by its fast processing time. This is an essential Programming Language skill demanded by employers from candidates.
    • Java: This is the most popularly used programming language for Android Smartphone applications. It is also the favorite language for the development of IoT (Internet of Things) and Edge devices. The Java compiler is written in C and C++ to create a “simple to use” language, and since it is English-based, numeric code knowledge is not required. Java is therefore a High Level language. It is an exceptional computing system supported by Oracle that creates portability between different platforms. It runs on the JVM (Java Virtual Machine). MNC companies use it frequently, to take advantage of its portability between platforms. This is another essential skill for software architects and engineers.
    • Scala: The Scalable Language was designed by Martin Odersky as a generic purpose, high level, and multi-paradigm programming language in order to provide support for the functional programming approach. Scala Programs can do the JVM (Java Virtual Machine) run, and can convert to ‘bytecodes’. Scala is inter-operable with Java, and is therefore a superb general purpose language, as well as being perfect for Data Sciences. As an example, the Cluster Computing Framework, ‘Apache Spark’, is written in Scala.
    • Julia: Julia has similar Syntax as Python, and is also a dynamic, high-level High-performance programming language for Technical Computing, Distributed Parallel Execution, Numerical Accuracy and Extensive Mathematical Function Library. Its performance is as good as ‘C’, which is a statically compiled language. It has been designed for Numerical Computing, but can also be used as a general purpose language. Julia is fast developing as a viable alternative for Python, and is rapidly acquiring a following of top class developers. Experts feel Julia could soon overtake ‘C++’. Julia was designed and developed by Jeff Bezanson, Allen Edelman, Stefan Karpinski, Viral B. Shah and others. Julia is much more adapted for Data Science than the presently popular Python. It is specifically aimed at Data Mining, Distributed and Parallel Computing, Large Scale Linear Algebra, and Machine Learning. All of these make it far better than Python for use in Data Science.
    • TensorFlow: TensorFlow Software was built by Google with an underlying C++ Programming Language. This is an AI Engine, and Coders can use C++ or Python. It uses Data Flow graphs to build models. Large scale neural networks with many layers can be built with TensorFlow, and can be used for Perception, Understanding, Discovering, Prediction and Creation. TensorFlow was Open-sourced by Google in late 2015, and is now the most popular ‘Deep Learning’ framework.
    • MATLAB: This is a multi-pardigm Numerical Computing environment, and Proprietary Programming Language. It is a perfectly suited language for mathematicians and scientists dealing with complex mathematical requirements, such as, Matrix Algebra, Fourier Transforms, and Image and Signal Processing. Latest release was in September 11th 2019. It was designed by Cleve Moler and developed by MathWorks.
  • what is data science
    Data Science,  Databases

    Field of Data Science Explained

    Data science is nothing but a comprehensive sector that involves several methods based on science, procedures, calculations and systems to get information from the data which could be either well structured or quite unstructured in nature. Data science is simply the utilization of the hardware, programming system and highly complex algorithms to find solutions to a lot of problems. It runs on the basic concept of bringing together various fields like stats, analysis of data, learning of machine and methods related to them. It inculcates tricks and theory which are taken from a lot of fields involving the concept of maths, stats, science of computer, and science of information. Data science is nowadays becoming a quite famous term in the communities of executives of business. In spite of this fact, a lot of critics of academic field and various journalists saying that they cannot find any difference between stats and data science, while some other people take it as a pretty popular set of words for “mining of data”. A journalist has come up and argued that the word data science is a kind of buzzword that is, it does not have an explanatory definition and hence, he has very replaced it with the word “analytics of business”. This term has been chosen with reference to programs like degree graduates. 

    Steps that help an individual to Be a data scientist

    There are majorly three steps that help an individual to become a data scientist. They are as follows:

    • The person has to achieve a degree of bachelor in the sector or branch of information and technology, maths, computer science, physics, or any other field related to computers or data science.
    • Then the person has to gain a master’s degree in the same fields or any other computer related field.
    • The person then is required to gain a lot of experience in the field of data science.

    Requirements related to the education of a data scientist

    There are a number of pathways that lead and land a person in the desired career in the field of data science, but in spite of having the zest and plan with complete intent and focus, we all know that it is not entirely possible to start and have a career in this field of data science without having a college degree and further education. A person will as the last requirement require degree of bachelor of duration of four years. Although the person has to keep the fact in his or her mind that about seventy three percent of the skilled persons working in the data science industry, posses a degree of graduation and some thirty eight percent of people even posses a PhD. If the people have aimed at a goal that is a highly advanced position of leadership, then they will surely have to gain either a degree of masters or a doctorate.

    There are some schools that offer degrees in data science. This degree will surely provide the person the skills that are necessary to process and perform the analysis of a very typical collection of data, and it will inculcate a lot of information that is technical and is in relation to computers, statistics and techniques for analysis, and many more. The majority of programs of data science will also possess an innovative and creative element of analysis, it will allow the person to make decisions for judgements that have findings as their basis.

    Career path of a data scientist

    Although people possess the skills required to become a successful data scientist directly coming from college, it usually happens with people to require some of the skills while the training on the job before they are up to the main work and run their careers in fully efficient ways. This training given at jobs before the start of the main work generally has its core around the topic of specific programs of the company and its profits along with the internal system, but there are chances that it might involve techniques of the advanced analysis system that are usually not being taught in their colleges. At the end, we can say that the data science world is an ever evolving area, hence the people working in this sector are necessarily required to constantly make their efficiency and skills up to date. They are continuously being trained to be at the position of the leading person and also at the progressing state of technology and information.

    Data scientists generally work in a lot of creative and efficiency enhancing settings, but the majority of these people are working in settings that are like a usual office which allows the employees to work in teams for projects and to have a good communication.

  • Data Science,  Data Science Education

    Best Online Data Science Schools

    Online data science provides the students with a flexible and affordable path towards a very lucrative data science job. According to the bureau of Labor Statistics the projected employment growth for database administrators is 11% with the current average salary for database administrators standing at $87,020. The increasing popularity of data analytics and data base administrators adds to the ever increasing in employment for data scientists at cloud computing firms.

    Big data is not limited to cloud computing firms. Startups and established businesses are leveraging the power of data science to improve their operations and increase their profits. Competition to acquire talented data scientists is fierce and across a diverse amount of industries and spaces. Dating and hookup apps turn towards data and analytics to help their members find a fuck buddy. Huge adult sites like PornHub utilize data to monetize content. Sports teams use data to make in game decisions. Really the leveraging of data and therefore the need for data scientists continues to grow exponentially.

    Below is a list of top online data school science programs which have been selected based on the quality of the program, type of course provided, school awards, faculty, rankings and reputation.

    University of Southern California (USC)

    USC offers more than just 100-degree options which include master of science in computing science that totals up to 32 units. The USC programs tends to train students in the fundamentals of computer science thus enabling them to retrieve, store, analyze and visualize data. The graduates of online data science are equipped with data science jobs in diverse industries like healthcare, transportation, and energy. The advantage with the program is that it makes it possible for distance students to view the same lecturers as on campus students. Those who get to join live classes are able to ask the professor questions in real time.

    Students who study full time get to earn their data science program in less than 18 months with part time students getting to earn their degree in 2-3 years. The core topics of data science include database systems, algorithm analysis and artificial intelligence.

    University of North Carolina at Chapell Hill

    UNC offers online business administration course with a specialization in data analytics and decision-making concentration. The program offers research-based seminars where online data students create, implement and communicate data driven data-driven business strategies. In order to earn their data science degree, the students have to complete 66 credits.

    Students have to take one core class in analytical tools with the remainder in of the online data science master classes consisting of elective options such as digital marketing, information modelling and management.

    University of California – Berkeley

    Drawing from a multidisciplinary pedagogy the UC Berkeley’s. They train students to design innovative services, applications as well as business solutions. The students tend to use data analytics tools so as to work with complex data and solve-real world problems. The students are also able to pursue their full-time degree or through part-time enrollment.

    The 27-unit curriculum consists of mainly online colleges course in statistics, machine learning, data analytics, data engineering, research design and application. Students who do not have adequate object-oriented programming experience tend to complete a python of data science class.

    University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign

    data science education

    The university of Illinois offers academic programs and enrolls more than 72,000 students across the globe. The catalogue includes mainly 32-credit program that is centered on cloud computing, data mining, machine learning, data analytics and data visualization. Students who are earning their online data masters program develop skills in statistics and information science as this enables them to apply meaningful information from vast and unstructured data.

    Georgia Tech

    Georgia Tech offers 13 graduate programs including data analytics where learners get to take full online college courses through blackboard learn. Learners at data analytics take full online college programs through developing their mathematical and analytical skills to extract relevant information from data streams. The program provides full admission for graduate students and offers one of the lowest online tuition rates.

    They total up to 30 credits which provide online master degree plan that consist of the required classes in specialization, choosing from analytical tools, business management and big data. Companies like Apple, Bumble, Uber and other tech giants often recruit from this program.

    Southern Methodist University

    The innovative Southern Methodist University uses a skilled based curriculum that combines self-paced online college courses in addition to live weekly classes and collaborative projects. The online masters project centers in data science degree on statistics and visualization, training students to undermine, analyze and apply data so as to make strategic business decisions.

    Rochester Institute of Technology

    It was founded in 1829 and the Rochester Institute of Technology enrolls over 3,200 graduates in accessible academic programs. The 30-credit data science degree program emphasizes experimental learning and career development. The data science programs cultivate theoretical knowledge and practical skills through problem solved assignments.

  • Compilers,  Data Science

    What is a Compiler?

    Compiler is a program installed on the computer which translates the high-level language which is in the form of human understandable form into a machine level language that is understood by the computer. The machine understandable language is usually in the form of binary representation. This is done in order to create an executable program.

    Types of compilers:

    • Native code compiler– it converts the code from one language to another when the program has to run on the same kind of platform. This executable code that is generated by the compiler can only be run by that platform.
    • One pass compiler– it is a kind of compiler that creates the executable file in exactly one pass.
    • Threaded code compiler– replaces a string by a binary code.
    • Cross compiler– it is the inverse of native code compiler. It converts the source code into the kind of executable code which can run on different kinds of platforms.
    • Source to source compiler– it takes input in a high level language and then converts that code’s output into another high level language only.
    • Source compiler– is the type of compiler that converts a code in a high level language into a code in assembly language only.

    There are many kinds of compilers out of which the above mentioned are the most important one that you should know.

    Different steps the compiler has to perform are- pre-processor, lexical analysis, generation of parse tree, annotation of the parsed tree (semantic analysis), intermediate representation, code optimization and target code generation. These steps can be categorized as front end, back end and middle end respectively, where intermediate representation falls into the category of middle end.

    Compilers come under the category of a language processor. Interpreters are also a kind of language processors that directly run a program without converting the code to an executable one. Common examples where compilers are used are- C/C++, Java, etc. Common examples where interpreters are used are- Python.

    python compiler

    Various applications of compilers are:

    • FORTRAN
    • COBOL
    • LISP

    Working of a compiler

    Initially, one instruction from the source code is taken and is converted into tokens. These tokens are fed into the lexical analyzer which in turn converts these tokens into a parse tree. This parse tree is then annotated by checking the type of each token in the instruction. For example, in case there is an int data type, it is converted into float data type. Then out of the annotated parse tree, an intermediate code is got and that is in turn converted into an intermediate code. This code will not be optimal i.e, we would want a code that is in its simplest form. So this code is fed to the code optimizer which will make the code much simpler. The final target code is then got by converting the optimized code into a machine level instruction.

    Compilers are very important when you code in languages like c and c++, Java etc. There have been adult apps and meet n fuck sites that have gone down do to issues in this area. Without compilers, this code will never run. Compilers convert the source files into an executable code with extension .exe.